Edited by Jun IKENO
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THE DECLINING COFFEE ECONOMY AND LOW POPULATION GROWTH IN MWANGA DISTRICT, TANZANIA
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University
North Pare Mountains in Mwanga District of Tanzania's northern highlands are part of the Kilimanjaro coffee zone, and coffee has led the local economy of this district since at least the time of national independence in 1961. However, under the economic liberalization policies introduced in 1986, coffee production in Mwanga has decreased dramatically from approximately 700 tons in 1985/86 to 100 tons in 2004/05. The population of the district grew only by 1.23% annually from 1988 to 2002, a rate lower than the averages for Kilimanjaro Region and Tanzania Mainland as a whole. The mountain villages suitable for coffee production have had low growth, whereas those in the western plain area along a major road have had high growth rates. Adverse economic conditions may have accelerated the historical out-migration from the mountains. Concurrently, in the western plain, towns and suburbs have offered better economic opportunities since the introduction of the new national development policy, "Poverty Reduction Strategy" in 2000. Here, I use district-level data, as well as information from field surveys to examine the decline of the coffee economy and its relationship to low population growth in Mwanga District.
Key Words: Coffee; Livelihood strategy; Migration; Population growth; Tanzania.
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ECONOMIC LIBERALIZATION AND AREAL DIFFERENTIATION OF LIVELIHOOD STRATEGIES IN THE SMALLHOLDER COFFEE PRODUCTION AREA OF THE ARUMERU DISTRICT, TANZANIA
Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University
Geography is an important and complex mediating factor of the impact of macroeconomic policies on local rural livelihoods. Smallholders in the Arumeru coffee production area, located in northeastern Tanzania, have adopted different livelihood strategies to survive within the regional system under changing macroeconomic conditions. After the liberalization of the market, these farmers substantially retreated from coffee production; this has been most pronounced in the former production center. The alternative livelihood strategies that have been adopted and the net income levels of the sample rural households depend on the location, local environment, and regional system that includes the urban economy vitalized by the liberalization. For instance, horticulture and dairy production have been stimulated by the crosssectoral impacts of the liberalization measures on various activities, including mining and tourism, in different areas of the region. These two agricultural activities exhibit spatial variation within the same system according to the availability of irrigation and the relative ease of transport. Therefore, the geographical incidences of the retreat from coffee production and the possible and/or adopted livelihood strategies are not uniform, and the extent of de-agrarianization has been, on the whole, not significant, and economically stratified.
Key Words: Coffee; Areal differentiation; Stratification; De-agrarianization; Tanzania.
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RECENT CHANGES IN CROP PATTERNS IN THE KILIMANJARO REGION OF TANZANIA: THE DECLINE OF COFFEE AND THE RISE OF MAIZE AND RICE
Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Dar es Salaam
Peasant households in Tanzania have a variety of income sources. However, establishing a crop in the peasant farming culture requires much investment, and the decline of a crop that is a source of livelihood can cause much misery. Widespread social and economic changes in the peasant society and in the regional society as a whole have led to a decline in coffee crops in Kilimanjaro since the 1970s, despite the fact that coffee is its principal cash crop. This paper explores the decline of coffee and the ascendancy of rice and maize as major crops in the Kilimanjaro region. The driving forces behind these changes in crop culture are considered. The argument is made that wider institutional changes, in addition to internal changes in peasant households, have contributed to the decline of coffee and the rise of maize and rice as the principal crops.
Key Words: Coffee; Small farmers; Inheritance; Population; Institutional change.
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NEW ROLE OF COOPERATIVES IN ETHIOPIA: THE CASE OF ETHIOPIAN COFFEE FARMERS COOPERATIVES
Institute of Developing Economies, JETRO
Since 1991, policies of economic liberalization in Ethiopia have been effective in releasing the economy from rigid state control. At the same time, they have also exposed Ethiopian people to domestic and international free market competition. In African countries, the retreat of governments from rural development due to economic liberalization policies has led to the re-evaluation of the role of cooperatives. Since 1999, in Ethiopia, several coffee farmers cooperative unions have been established to support peasants who are handicapped by their lack of negotiating power in the global economy. Coffee cooperatives have become more market-oriented and are now relatively democratic compared to the former Marxist cooperatives of the previous regime. Thus far, these coffee cooperatives have provided higher profits to coffee farmers than have private traders. The actual volume of purchase, however, is limited due to financial constraints. Because of this, the majority of cooperatives continues to rely on conventional marketing channels rather than on unions. Considering their weak financial condition, it is too early to judge the sustainability of the cooperatives because international prices have been high recently, and it is not yet clear how they would survive a downward international price trend.
Key Words: Coffee; Cooperative; Ethiopia; Fairtrade; Yirgacheffe.
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REGIONAL DIFFERENCES REGARDING LAND TENANCY IN RURAL RWANDA, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO SHARECROPPING IN A COFFEE PRODUCTION AREA
Institute of Developing Economies, JETRO
Institut de Recherche Scientifique et Technologique
This paper examines land tenancy systems and tenant contracts in Rwanda, with respect to socioeconomic contexts. Our research in southern and eastern Rwanda produced data suggesting that land borrowing with fixed rents has been generally practiced, and that rent levels have been low in comparison to expected revenues from field production. In the western areas of coffee production, however, the practice of sharecropping has recently appeared. This system is advantageous to landowners, as they are able to acquire half of the harvests; in addition, the fixed rent levels in this region are much higher than those of other regions. In the southern and eastern regions, because land borrowing with fixed rents has been the only tenancy pattern and rent levels have remained low, the economic situation should be interpreted in the context of a continuing traditional Rwandan land tenure system. In contrast, in the western cofnce of sharecropping have been brought about by high pressures for land use, which were caused not only by a population increase but also by the development of cash crop production and the existence of a labor exchange system. The increase in rent levels has therefore been offset by a corresponding increase in agricultural productivity.
Key Words: Coffee; Land; Rwanda; Sharecropping; Tenancy.
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