Edited by Jiro TANAKA
Spatial Proximity and Bodily Contact among the Central Kalahari San
Faculty of Letters, Hokkaido University
Interpersonal spacing and bodily contact in public situations, were observed within the camps of the G/wi San. In an isolated camp composed of one family, the mother was in close proximity with all other members. In the mixed camps, the San were in far more frequent proximity with the same sex than with the opposite sex. The mode of distance between persons of the same sex was 0.1-1.3 m, while it was far longer between males and females other than ones' spouse. Of the body parts, the foot was most frequently involved in unintentional contact-states. Grooming behavior was usually performed by females toward juveniles or other females, while males never groomed females. The primary function of grooming toward juveniles was maternal care or reassurance, while between females, it functioned as a sociable transaction; particularly as a 'service' by the younger toward the elder. Males were in proximity with each other irrespective of kinship, while proximity and contact preferentially occurred between females, or between males and females of consanguineous kin. Proximity and physical contact were avoided between siblings or siblings-in-law of the opposite sex. Physical contact was strongly avoided between in-laws belonging to adjacent generations. However, proximity and contact generally occurred irrespectively of the relationship between generations.
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The Rendille Subsistence Groups Based on Age-System
School of Arts, Rikkyo University
The Rendille, Eastern Cushitic camel pastoralists, live in northern Kenya of East Africa. In this article, firstly, the age-system, the developmental cycle of the family, and the organization of subsistence group are analyzed, and it is concluded that the age-system and the patrilineal descent group with higher political, economic, and residential corporateness play an important role in maintaining the pastoral subsistence of the Rendille. Secondly, the Rendille age-system is compared with that of their neighboring pastoral peoples in terms of structure and function, and it is discussed that some modifications have been made in the three points: the period of enrollment into age-set, acceptance of climbing up to a higher age-set, and sapadi institution, on the age-system to meet the Rendille subsistence.
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On the Stability of the Goat Herd in the Pastoral Samburu
Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University
The domestic goat herds maintained by the Samburu, nomadic pastoralists living in northern Kenya, are observed from a socio-ecological point of view. This study attempts to examine the characteristics of the domestic goat herd and to discuss its origin.
Firstly, the interaction between man and goats in day-trip herding is described, and it is conjectured that there is some kind of cohesiveness between individuals within the herd. This is confirmed by the observations of group oriented behavior; stray goats autonomously going back to the herd without human management. These observations show that primarily goats gather in herds and herders assist goats in gathering together.
Secondly, two examples of inter-herd relations show that goats distinguish their own herd from another and have a tendency to keep in contact with their own herd. The herd is thus discernible during inter-herd encounters. Therefore it is concluded that the domestic goat herd is a sociologically stable unit, a discernible congregation with constant membership.
The feral goats of Chichijima, however, does not form a stable group, and it is highly probable that the wild goat does not from one either. All these factors suggest and support the hypothesis that, the stable domestic goat herd was formed with the influence of man during the process of domestication.
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Symptoms are Classified into Diagnostic Categories; Turkana's View of Livestock Diseases
Faculty of Science, Kyoto University
Thirty-seven livestock disease categories of the Turkana are examined. Special attention was directed toward their etymology, curative means, and etiology. The Turkana have not developed therapeutic measures. They lack pathogenic explanations and the etiology is of little significance in their dealing with livestock diseases. It is only the classification of diseases which attains high development. All livestock disease names have their etymology in the conspicuous symptoms and/or parts of body where the given disease occurs. In their system, what is classified is not the disease as the causes of disorder in health, but the conspicuous uncommonness visible on the animals' body. Because the disease names have their motive in the substances of disease (symptoms), referring itself to the morbid condition of animals, functions as a diagnostic process.
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