Edited by Shun SATO
A Comparative Study of the Herd Structure between the Feral Ogasawara Goats and the Domestic Samburu Goats
Shimane Women's Junior College
Socio-ecological and behavioral data of the domestic goats reared by the pastoral Samburu of northern-central Kenya are analyzed in comparison with those of the feral goats of Chichijima Island, Japan, for inference on the process of domestication of bovine livestock. The pastoral and feral goats' behaviors are compared with those of wild bovine species. With regard to the origin of pastoral herds, the results suggest that the hypothesis assuming that man first caught infants and formed the livestock herds is more plausible than assuming that man habituated a natural group of animals as a whole.
Key Words: Samburu; Domestication; Goat; Pastralism; Herding; Bovine behavior and ecology.
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What does Marriage Mean to Each Gender of the Il-Chamus?- Husband-Wife Relationship of an East African Agro-Pastoral People
Faculty of Science, Kyoto University
The husband-wife relationship of the Il-Chamus, an agro-pastoral people living in northern Kenya, is analyzed from socio-economical and behavioral viewpoints. Described are: (1) acquisition and inheritance of property, division of labor, and wives' separation from their husbands in polygynous families; and (2) the husband's control of the wife's behavior, adultery, and legitimacy of children. By marriage, Il-Chamus husbands get wives' labor, which is indispensable for daily chores. By co-residence, they try to prevent wives from committing adultery, which endangers children's legitimacy. By marriage, wives getproperty, i.e. livestock and farms, to subsist on. It is not always necessary for them to co-reside with their husbands.
Key Words: Il-Chamus; Northern Kenya; Agro-pastoralist; Marriage system; Social structure; Husband; Wife.
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Deep Involvement in Social Interactions among the Turkana
Faculty of Humanities, Hirosaki University
This report deals with how the Turkana people manage their involvement in situational activities. The Turkana often beg another for something. When begging, they are intensely absorbed in their emotion. The beggar's behavior seems dually characterized: the childish behavior with insufficient control over the self and the tactical one for negotiation. Also in situations other than begging, they are often deeply involved in immediate interactions. They, as participants in the interaction, persist in having their way and display the unperturbed self. They refuse anything provisional about themselves. Also within the level of assumed "reality" which attendants in the gathering sustain, they persist in refusing anything provisional. They affirmatively front whatever is presented. They never bother themselves with whether the "reality" sustained is true or false. While they are lively within the "reality" which is shared by all attendants, they are in any situations required to deeply involved in their activities.
Key Words: Social interactions; Communication; Social relationship; Involvement; Turkana.
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The Influence of Sedentism on Sharing among the Central Kalahari Hunter-Gatherers
Center for African Area Studies, Kyoto University
This paper deals with recent changes in the life and society of the Central Kalahari San, traditional hunter-gatherers living in the =Kade area of the Central Kalahari Game Reserve.
The sedentarization program of the Botswana government has had a profound influence on the subsistence of the Central Kalahari San. Gathering, which formerly supplied the San with 80% of the caloric value in their diet, has become less important, and their hunting methods have completely changed. Instead of traditional bow-and-arrow hunting, they were using horses for hunting in 1982. Equestrian hunting (hunting on horseback)is so effective that agreat amount of meat is acpuired in one hunting trip. They have begun to sell some of this meat to visitors to get cash. Inequality in the first distribution of meat has developed. The horse owners receive approximately half of the meat, while other participants receive only a small amount. Such inequality did not exist, when they led a nomadic life.
Equality remains unchanged in the sharing of meat which is stored by horse owners. Although the principle of equality remains influential, the flow of the meat is one-way, always from the minority of the horse owners to the majority of others. Such a one-way flow of distribution did not exist in their traditional society.
Besides equestrian hunting, dog hunting (hunting with spear or club, with the help of dogs) became popular in 1987. Until recently, hunting with dogs was a subsidiary method. In contrast to equestrian hunting, everybody can participate in hunting with dogs on equal terms. The meat which is acquired by hunting with dogs is distributed equally among the participants, then the participants share the meat with non-participants within the same camp. The sudden spread of hunting with dogs proves that their co-existence is still governed by egalitarianism. It is concluded that although sedentism has so deeply influenced their situation that a cultural changes has occurred, their tradition of egalitarianism remains a fundamental part of the San society.
Key Words: Central Kalahari San; Hunter-gatherers; Sedentism; Sharing; Egalitarianism; Development.
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