Top > African Study Monographs > ASM Supplementary Issue Back Number > No. 51 (2015)

Present Situation and Future Prospects of Nutrition Acquisition in African Tropical Forest


Edited by Daiji KIMURA


PREFACE

Daiji KIMURA

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pp. 5-35

CHANGE IN LAND USE AMONG THE BONGANDO IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO

Daiji KIMURA
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University
Lingomo-Bongoli
Forêt des Bonobos
Hiroshi Masuda
Independent Researcher
Ryota Yamaguchi
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University

ABSTRACT
      The change in land use of the Bongando people in the tropical rainforests of the
democratic republic of the Congo was studied. this research used several datasets on land use
from the 1960s to the present. Most of them are based on the long-term fixed point research in
the Wamba region, where primatological and anthropological research has been conducted by
a Japanese team. the patterns of change in land use across the years show that crop fields and
secondary forest areas have been gradually expanding at a moderate pace. the Bongando
people circulate crop fields mostly in secondary forest areas. in this sense, they render a minimum
burden for the forest environment. Meanwhile, they frequently enter forest areas to stay in
hunting/fishing camps. Such stays form a considerable portion of their subsistence. for nature
conservation and development programs, this type of data-based information on local people’s
land use is indispensable.

Key Words: Land use; Tropical rainforest; Bongando; Democratic republic of the Congo;
Subsistence activities.

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pp. 51-73

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND PREFERENCES OF THE BONGANDO PEOPLE IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO

Ryota YAMAGUCHI
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University

ABSTRACT
    People living in the Congo basin forest have developed a variety of ways to use
natural resources. Thus, the increase in conservation projects must be accompanied by efforts
to clarify the livelihood-related conditions of local people. This paper provided a detailed investigation
of the utilization of natural resources by the Bongando people living in the great
ape habitat of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Specifically, the paper examined
food acquisition and consumption based on direct observations and measurements, and also
discussed the adequacy of food assessment approaches. Quantitative data on food acquisition
and consumption at the study site showed that the amount of carbohydrates consumed was
adequate; however, less animal protein was consumed by those living at the study site than by
people living in great ape habitats in Africa. This suggests that availability of animal protein
fluctuates, and that the Bongando people follow a dual village/forest lifestyle. Cassava leaves
and other vegetables are also important protein sources. Data on the food preferences of the
Bongando indicate that they strongly prefer cassava as their staple, and that they engage in
sophisticated ways of cultivating leaves for consumption as food. The data also reflect the
Bongando people’s strong preference for wild animals, and the fact that some people avoid
eating livestock. Food preferences are important factors in the success of conservation projects,
as it is crucial to find ways for local people to maintain adequate caloric and protein intake that
are acceptable to the people themselves and to the projects. Therefore, research based on a food
assessment approach should occur in parallel with research based on direct observations.
Quantitative food assessment is useful because it provides data for an entire year for a large-scale
population. However, it is also necessary to conduct preliminary research to obtain basic information
about a population and its use of natural resources. Research designs must be developed
based on the analysis, screening, and correction of data by researchers with a deep knowledge
about the local livelihoods to prevent human error.

Key Words: Food acquisition and consumption; Food preference; Bongando; Democratic
Republic of the Congo; African tropical rain forest.

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pp. 57-73

THE ROLES OF LOCAL ASSOCIATIONS IN RAINFOREST CONSERVATION AND LOCAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF the CONGO

Naoki MATSUURA
School of International Relations, University of Shizuoka

ABSTRACT
      Community-based local organizations should play key roles in both conservation
and development, but local African organizations do not always function effectively on
behalf of the local poor people. It is necessary to perform careful on-site investigations of how
local organizations were formed, and of how they actually function. This article focuses on
community-based local associations in villages adjacent to the forest reserve in the Democratic
Republic of the Congo. The author demonstrates (1) the establishment, structure, membership,
activities, and socioeconomic role of the local associations, (2) the intra- and intergroup relationships
of such associations, and (3) the results of the development projects implemented by
local associations. This study found that people in the research site are reorganizing their social
structure by participating in the development and conservation practices of local associations
during this difficult post-conflict period. It is necessary for conservation agencies to accept
their trial-and-error approach and engage in continuous interactions undertaken from a
long-term perspective instead of rendering judgments based on immediate results.

Key Words: Community-based local associations; Sustainable development; Nature conservation;
Tropical rainforest; Democratic Republic of the Congo.

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pp. 77-91

REORGANIZING THE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM IN POST-CONFLICT SOCIETY: A STUDY ON ORIENTALE PROVINCE, THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO

Shingo TAKAMURA
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University

ABSTRACT
      In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, conflicts have devastated the distribution
infrastructure such as roads and bridges, which has stymied the rural economy. The current
state of urban-rural distribution processes must be determined to rehabilitate local communities.
However, the perspective of such determinations is unclear. This article, therefore, describes
and analyzes conflict impacts on urban-rural distribution, periodic market functioning, and
indigenous distributional activities based on qualitative and GPS data collected from an extensive
area survey. Observing 500 km of main roadways from rural villages to the capital of Orientale
Province by motorbike, I present a study of urban-rural distribution. Today, a mass of rural
residents travel to periodic markets through forests and engage in long-distance peddling to
connect with the urban economy while petty traders advance their commercial activities.
Using waterborne transportation, such as dugout canoes, traders sustain urban-rural commodity
interexchange. The collapse of the pre-conflict distribution system has caused the periodic
markets to become influential regional economic nodes. These observations indicate that
local people reorganize alternative distribution systems utilizing indigenous knowledge and
ecological environments.

Key Words: Post-conflict society; Distribution system; Indigenous development; Periodic
market; Democratic Republic of the Congo.

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pp. 91-105

A PRELIMINARY REPORT ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF FRESHWATER FISH OF THE CONGO RIVER: BASED ON THE OBSERVATION OF LOCAL MARKETS IN BRAZZAVILLE, REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO

Takanori OISHI
Research Institute for Humanity and Nature
Mikiko HAGIWARA
Independent Researcher

ABSTRACT
      This article presents a report on the distribution process of freshwater fish in
Brazzaville, a modern-day city in central Africa, by focusing on the trading strategies of fish
vendors. Freshwater fish is a major source of protein for the dwellers of this city, and is therefore
an important component of their food. This fish is available in three forms at the local markets
of Brazzaville: (1) fresh fish, (2) smoked fish, and (3) salted dried fish. Each form has its own
transportation and distribution system. Fish vendors with different form of merchandise employ
different trading strategies. Smoked fish and salted dried fish vendors are highly specialized
and tend to develop strong relationships with specific middlemen. These relationships are
often cultivated through ethnic ties based on the area of origin. Fresh fish vendors are more
opportunistic in selling items and trading relationships. Future studies should explore how
increased demand for fish in urban areas and the strong trading relationships are impacting the
sustainability of aquatic resource use.

Key Words: Animal protein; Freshwater fish; Urbanization; Trade relationships; Local market.

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pp. 107-118

PIG FARMING AT KINSHASA IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO

Kazunobu IKEYA
National Museum of Ethnology

ABSTRACT
      Pig farming has been gaining attention in recent years in African countries south
of the Sahara as a source of urban farmers’ cash income. This study was undertaken to explain
what types of pigs are raised, how and where they are raised, and how pork is distributed in
Kinshasa of the DRC . The results indicated that six households had begun pig farming in the
past 14 years, two of which had nonetheless lost their pigs to disease. All of the pig farmers
surveyed raised their animals in pigpens for marketing. Some spent grain from commercial
bakeries was also used as a supplemental feed food resource for pigs. This case of using waste
is likely to provide useful options when considering the sustainable use of resources in large
cities in the African tropics.

Key Words: Pig; Rearing; Distribution; Market; Pork; Sustainable use; Protein.

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pp. 119-141

BUSHMEAT HUNTING IN SOUTHEASTERN CAMEROON: MAGNITUDE AND IM PACT ON DUIKERS (Cephalophus spp.)

Kadiri S. BOBO1,3
Towa O. W. KAMGAING
2
Eric C. KA MDOUM
3
Zeun’s C.B. DZEFACK
3
1 School for the Training of Wildlife Specialists Garoua,
Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife, Cameroon
2 Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University
3 Department of Forestry, Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences,
University of Dschang

ABSTRACT
      Information regarding the hunting activities of local residents is essential for
solving sustainability problems in afro-tropical forests. We studied bushmeat hunting in two
Community Hunting Zones (CHZs 13 and 14) located in the northern periphery of Boumba-Bek
National Park in southeastern Cameroon. We monitored 899.14 hunter-days in nine neighboring
villages, over a period of 12 months. Animals were hunted in national parks and in logging and
agroforestry zones. We recorded 587 carcasses of 38 species, for a total fresh biomass of 3.46
tons. Ungulates and primates were the most heavily hunted; however, the latter were primarily
represented in CHZ 13, the zone with the most intensive hunting pressure. Reptiles and birds
were fairly represented among offtakes (4.36%). Harvests varied considerably by species and
CHZ. The blue duiker (41%) and the putty-nosed monkey (15%) were the most frequently
captured. In contrast with the latter, the blue duiker was harvested at similar rates in all the
villages, indicating its importance for local people. Hunters consumed 26.7% of their total catch
with their families and sold 67.8%. The bushmeat trade, defined in terms of the proportion of
animals sold, was positively correlated with the number of households. In both CHZs hunting
was largely unsustainable for blue duikers. However, in CHZ 14 offtakes of red duikers were
probably under sustainable harvest limit. Our analysis have implications for the development of
adaptive wildlife management plans that could enhance sustainability in the region. Overhunting
will not be solved, unless the bushmeat trade is tackled effectively.

Key Words: Bushmeat; Cameroon; Duiker; Harvest rate; Sustainability.

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pp. 141-156

ATTEMPTS AT DECENTRALIZATION, FOREST MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION IN SOUTHEASTERN CAMEROON

Godefroy NGIMA MAWOUNG
The University of Ngaoundéré

ABSTRACT
      The concept of decentralization consists of the breaking down of heavy government
machinery into smaller administrative units at the local level. This article attempts to examine
the decentralization and forest management in the southeastern region of Cameroon, as well as
their impacts on the way of life of the local population (Bantu and Baka). This study is based
on a historical approach and socio-anthropological analyses, and highlights the difficulties
faced by the public administration in the implementation of these new dispensations at the local
level. Further, this study equally demonstrates the non-appropriation of the new management
tools by the parties concerned. This therefore explains the reticence of the central administration,
administrative delays, and its adoption by the Bantu and Baka.

Key Words: Decentralization; Deconcentration; Forest management; Local population; Baka;
Protected zones; Nature conservation; National parks.

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pp. 157-173

HOUSEHOLD PROTEIN INTAKE AND DISTRIBUTION OF PROTEIN SOURCES IN THE MARKETS OF SOUTHERN GHANA: A PRELIMINARY REPORT

Kaori KOMATSU
Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Shizuoka University
Koichi KITANISHI
Faculty of Education, Yamaguchi University

ABSTRACT
      This paper describes protein intake in the forest areas of southern Ghana. The
paper is based on research conducted at markets and observation of meals at households. The
protein sources have changed due to the natural and economical environment in the area.
Primary protein sources are wild animals, fish, livestock, and beans. Deforestation due to cacao
field expansion and some other reasons decreased the number of animals hunted in the forest.
We studied what protein sources are distributed at markets, where they are produced (local or
outside production), which protein sources households consume, how they are cooked, and
cultural values. Results indicate that fish is a primary protein source. Frozen, sun-dried,
smoked, and salted marine and freshwater fish are widely distributed, depending on the
development of truck transportation. Therefore, it seems that the self-sufficiency of protein
sources in local areas has decreased. Analyzing the case of Ghana is important in terms of
considering the future of central Africa’s forest areas.

Key Words: Protein intake; Forest; Southern Ghana; Fish; Wild meat.

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