Top > African Study Monographs > ASM Supplementary Issue Back Number > No. 50 (2014)

Confl ict Resolution and Coexistence: Realizing African Potentials


Edited by Itaru Ohta, Shuichi Oyama, Toru Sagawa & Shinichiro Ichino


PREFACE

Itaru Ohta

PDF file of body text (99 KB)


pp. 3-23

TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE DESTINED TO BE CRITICIZED AS FAILURE: UNDERSTANDING ITS UNIQUENESS FROM AFRICAN CASES

Toshihiro Abe
Department of Literature, Otani University

ABSTRACT
      African countries such as South Africa, Sierra Leone, Rwanda, Liberia, Ghana, and Nigeria share post-conflict policies known as transitional justice (TJ) to achieve accountability for conflicts, victimhood, and wrongdoing. This paper provides an assessment of the previous critical discourse on TJ, identifies the issues critics have focused on, examines why the assessments of TJ programs have been critical, and discusses whether the criticisms reflect essential conditions under which the TJ programs were conducted. The paper also examines the criticisms of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) in South Africa and traces the development of similar criticism aimed at Sierra Leonean and Rwandan programs. In so doing, it attempts to uncover the social conditions that affect TJ outcomes and induce repetitive choruses of criticisms. Finally, the author introduces a sociological framework based primarily on social movement theory to explore the contributions and potential of TJ for post-conflict societies.

Key Words: Transitional justice; Social movement; Mobilization; Post-conflict society; Double contingency.

PDF file of body text (260 KB)


pp. 25-41

GOVERNING THE VULNERABLE SELF AT HOME AND ABROAD: PEACE AND JUSTICE IN NORTHERN UGANDA AND “KONY 2012”

Tamara Enomoto

ABSTRACT

On March 5, 2012, a US-based group called Invisible Children posted a video
online, “KONY 2012,” which called for US military support for the Ugandan army so that it
could capture the leader of the Lord’s Resistance Army to bring him to justice at the
International Criminal Court (ICC). The video received attention and criticism from various
parties, including international NGOs that had been involved in previous debates over peace
and justice in northern Uganda. By looking back at past efforts of the international NGOs to
end the confl ict and achieve justice for the Acholi, this paper attempts to explain why the
international NGOs took KONY 2012 seriously, why their positions on the ICC differed, and
why they generally maintained their distance from Invisible Children while trying to learn
from its marketing success. The paper demonstrates that KONY 2012 and the general issue
of peace and justice in northern Uganda were not only connected with international NGOs’
therapeutic visions of governance in northern Uganda but also related to governance in their
own homelands. At the same time, the paper unveils the fragile and unstable nature of the
therapeutic vision of governance, both in the Acholi sub-region and in northern societies.

Key Words: Acholi; Colonialism; Civil society; Global governance; Trauma.

PDF file of body text (232 KB)


pp. 43–72

REMARGINALISING KENYAN PASTORALISTS: THE HIDDEN CURSE OF NATIONAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

Othieno Nyanjom
Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis

ABSTRACT
      Multidimensional poverty persists in Kenya, especially among its pastoralist
communities of the arid and semi arid lands (ASALs). This results from the failure of
successive independence governments to decisively mitigate the ASAL’s agro-ecological
adversities, because these governments have hitherto considered the areas to be incidental to
core national interests. The country’s long-term development blue-print, Kenya Vision 2030,
also pays scant attention to the ASALs, undermining the new constitution’s aspiration for
democratic, participatory governance that secures people’s basic rights and equitable
development, with special attention to marginalized communities, such as pastoralists. Prior
to Kenya’s recent discovery of viable stocks of natural resources, the country was cooperating
internationally on the development of the Lamu Port South Sudan Ethiopia
Transport (LAPSSET) corridor incorporating a rail, highway, oil pipeline and refinery
network, to which have been added airports and resort cities—all sited in the pastoralist
ASAL regions. Constitutional devolution encourages Kenya’s 47 autonomous counties to
plan and implement their respective development priorities. Meanwhile, the government has
undertaken little or no consultation with the host ASAL communities over the grandiose
LAPSSET project and the impending mining activities which are consequently likely to
swamp the host counties’ priorities, likely exacerbating their marginalization. This paper
highlights the risks LAPSSET and the impending mining activities pose to the ASAL
pastoralists and underscores the need for constitutionally mandated consultations over
national development initiatives.

Key Words: Kenya; Pastoralists; Marginalization; LAPSSET; Natural resources.

PDF file of body text (693 KB)


pp. 73–102

EGALITARIAN CONFLICT MANAGEMENT AMONG THE ÎGEMBE OF KENYA

Shin-ichiro Ishida
Department of Social Anthropology, Tokyo Metropolitan University

ABSTRACT
    In a farming community of the Îgembe (a subgroup of the Kîmîîrû-speaking
people) of the Kenyan central highlands, people do not rely primarily on judgements by
specialists, professionals or experts for confl ict management; instead, they have recourse to
conditional curses using oaths or the power of îchiaro. A conditional curse provides a
mechanism that can be an alternative to reasoned judgement. The third party does not convict
the disputants but enables them to wait for either party to recognise his or her responsibility
and confess at any time in the future. In these respects, confl ict management in the Îgembe
community is confession-oriented. Confl ict management with îchiaro is egalitarian and
democratic to the extent that every person has the power of îchiaro. Theoretically speaking,
the power of îchiaro is universally given to all individuals of the Îgembe. If one is born as a
member of the Athimba clan, he or she is automatically mwîchiaro to the Antûambûi and
Andûûne clans. Such a biological determinism is, from the local perspective, a dominant
means of identifying and understanding their îchiaro relationships. While everyone is eligible
to represent his or her clan as mwîchiaro, some individuals may be appreciated as more
powerful mwîchiaro than others. Nevertheless, as shown in a case study in this paper, îchiaro
men are not required to identify themselves as ‘experts’ in their private capacity. This
biological determinism thus serves to depersonalise the îchiaro.

Key Words: Alternative justice; Curse; Depersonalisation; Egalitarianism; Îchiaro; Îgembe;
Kenya; Oath.

PDF file of body text (1,109 KB)


pp. 103–122

FARMER-HERDER CONFLICT, LAND REHABILITATION, AND CONFLICT PREVENTION IN THE SAHEL REGION OF WEST AFRICA

Shuichi Oyama
Center for African Area Studies, Kyoto University

ABSTRACT
      The increase in the human population has led to dramatic consequences in
Sahelian countries, including food shortages, farmland expansion, and confl icts over land
and natural resources. Currently, more farmers and herders in south-central Niger try to use
the same land, making it very diffi cult for herders to fi nd suitable grassland for grazing
during the rainy season. Fulbe and Tuareg herders graze livestock on the barren plateau to
avoid damaging crops, and the farmers plant millet on land with fertile soil. Particularly
during harvest season, the relationship between farmers and herders deteriorates due to
livestock-induced crop damage. Hausa elders and pastoral Fulbe or Tuareg individuals living
in the village have engaged in negotiations to avoid direct confrontations between herders
and farmers. The disputed issues involve whether crop damage was caused by cattle and, if
so, whether it was intentional or the result of carelessness by the herdsman. Hausa society
has set the rate of cash compensation for intentional crop damage at ramuko and that for crop
damage attributable to carelessness at bana, which is half of ramuko. The rate applied in
particular cases is determined by negotiations between farmers and herders. If negotiations
are broken off, some herders or farmers may resort to violence, and the situation can escalate
into murder.
This paper discusses an approach to land rehabilitation and confl ict prevention used
in south-central Niger, which involves using trash for land rehabilitation, in terms of the
indigenous knowledge and daily practices of Hausa farmers. The author built two 50 ×
50-m fenced plots with Hausa and Fulbe villagers and brought urban trash to the degraded
land, which had been communal pastureland used by herders. Then, the author asked
individuals to manage the fenced pastureland and to graze livestock inside of this land.
This practice can be useful for preventing livestock-induced crop damage and confl ict
between farmers and herders.

Key Words: Livestock-induced crop damage; Hausa; Fulbe; Tuareg; Niger; Desertifi cation;
Indigenous ecological knowledge.

PDF file of body text (1,626 KB)


pp. 123–136

URBAN VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS AS “AFRICAN POTENTIALS”: THE CASE OF YAOUNDÉ, CAMEROON

Misa Hirano-Nomoto
Center for African Area Studies, Kyoto University

ABSTRACT
      This article examined several practices employed by urban voluntary
associations in Yaoundé, the capital city of Cameroon, to promote coexistence with Bamileke
immigrants from the western half of the West Region of Cameroon, where the territory is
divided into more than 100 small chiefdoms. Bamileke immigrants residing in cities organize
hometown associations among those who have emigrated from the same chiefdom; even
after relocation, these immigrants maintain their identity as members of particular chiefdoms.
I surveyed the non-elite hometown associations of a chiefdom in Yaoundé and analyzed how
the members perform mutual aid activities within their associations and how they maintain
their position within the city. The ability of Bamileke hometown associations to have
survived in cities for approximately one century indicates they have adapted to the
surrounding social, economic, and political environments. Although Bamileke hometown
associations experience confl ict when political struggles occur, members have employed
various approaches to maintaining their community. This ability to introduce different values
and organizations into a community is an expression of “African potential” in urban society.
The non-elite Bamileke hometown associations survive in the city by maintaining the core
activities of mutual help and using a variety of methods to subsume differences.

Key Words: African urban society; Hometown association; Mutual aid; Bamileke; Cameroon.

PDF file of body text (185 KB)


pp. 137–154

CONFLICT AS MOTIVATION FOR CHANGE: THE CASE OF COFFEE FARMERS’ COOPERATIVES IN MOSHI, TANZANIA

David Gongwe Mhando
Sokoine University of Agriculture

ABSTRACT
      The policies of the Tanzanian government regarding cooperative societies
have never been consistent, and frequent policy changes have shaken the foundation of these
institutions, rendering farmers’ cooperatives unstable and unable to cope with the dynamics
of production and a market environment. As a result, small-scale farmers have fallen victim
to organisations whose leaders are corrupt, inexperienced in the management of their
organisations, overly bureaucratic, and unable to assist farmers in production and marketing
endeavours. In this context, members of cooperatives have had to deal with issues related to
confl icts of interest. This paper explores why several rural primary cooperatives in Moshi,
Tanzania, withdrew from the Kilimanjaro Native Cooperatives Union (KNCU) and formed
an alternative organisation to produce and market their coffee. Data were obtained from oral
histories, focus group discussions, case studies, and interviews, as well as a literature review.
Both internal and external factors contributed to the change in coffee marketing in Moshi.
These factors include confl icts among the members of the KNCU, the selfi shness of some
leaders, changes in production and marketing policies, and externally imposed requirements
for qualifying for loans from commercial banks. Although confl ict among the members of
the KNCU has been longstanding and inevitable, not enough has been done to improve the
performance of the KNCU and to increase the security of small-scale farmers engaged in
coffee marketing.
Key Words: Confl icts;

Key Words: Confl icts; KNCU; Coffee; Primary cooperatives; Cooperative union.

PDF file of body text (224 KB)


pp. 155–172

BECOMING CONSERVATIONISTS, CONCEALING VICTIMS: CONFLICT AND POSITIONINGS OF MAASAI, REGARDING WILDLIFE CONSERVATION IN KENYA

Toshio Meguro
Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa,
Tokyo University of Foreign Studies

ABSTRACT
      Wildlife and its habitat has been the subject of dispute and friction in Africa,
but many countries implement “community-based” approaches today. With the recent
tendency of adopting more neoliberal defi nitions of this term, the exercise and embedment of
power in wildlife conservation became the subject of studies. Using the case study of a
Maasai society in southern Kenya, this paper examines the agency of local societies from the
viewpoint of “positionings”: points of contention regarding wildlife; their attitudes toward
conservation initiatives; and their representation of self-image. As community-based
conservation (CBC) was implemented, the central point of contention shifted from land to
benefi ts, and local people changed their attitudes from distrustful and exclusive, to receptive
and passive, to more active. Also their self-representation changed from those of victims to
conservationists. These changes prove they have a certain agency. However, the outcomes of
their agency include both productive and unsatisfying aspects, and may lead to the
reinforcement of the current animal welfare/rights-oriented policies that conceal the existence
and opinion of local victims. The next step is to consider whether that agency can be regarded
as a potential for abandoning the status quo and creating a more desirable environment.

Key Words: Wildlife conservation; Community-based conservation; Positionings; Maasai;
Kenya.

PDF file of body text (286 KB)


pp. 173–190

CONFLICTS OVER LAND AND WATER RESOURCES IN THE KILOMBERO VALLEY FLOODPLAIN, TANZANIA

Stephen Justice Nindi(1)
Hanori Maliti(1)
Samwel Bakari(1)
Hamza Kija(1)
Mwita Machoke(1)

(1)Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute

ABSTRACT
      The Kilombero Valley fl oodplain (KVFP) inhabits a very large natural wetland
of which over 70% is protected. Diverse mammals, amphibians, fi sh and bird species
populate the area. Importantly, KVFP harbours 75% of the world Puku antelope population.
Most human activities in the area include large and small scale farming, pastoralism and
fi shing. Recently, population pressure, overgrazing and aligned human activities have pressed
strain on the land and water resources in the KVFP. The situation prompted the government
of Tanzania to resettle some of the pastoral families so as to achieve sustainable natural
resources management. The paper provides an insight of this resettlement exercise as a multilayered
land use confl ict and its effects to the land resources and people’s livelihoods.
Focused group discussions, key informant interviews both using checklists and literature
review were the methods used for data collection. The Sukuma agro-pastoralists, Maasai and
Barbaig pastoralists were the most ethnic groups affected by the resettlement exercise. It was
envisaged that a pragmatic approach to land and water resources management such as
effective land use plans, natural resource monitoring plans, sensitization programs and rule
of law are needed to avoid future confl icts over land resources use and to ensure peoplecentered
development process is achieved.

Key Words: Land and Water Resources; Pastoralists; Agro-pastoralists; Confl icts;
Resettlement.

PDF file of body text (507 KB)


pp. 191–205

“NEOLIBERAL CONSERVATION” IN ETHIOPIA: AN ANALYSIS
OF CURRENT CONFLICTS IN AND AROUND PROTECTED
AREAS AND THEIR RESOLUTION

Nobuko Nishizaki
Faculty of Administration and Social Science, Fukushima University

ABSTRACT
    Neoliberal conservation approaches have led to a rapid increase in African
environmental protection practices since the 1990s. This paper aims to investigate the current
management of protected areas (PAs), which is based on the neoliberal conservation approach
adopted in Ethiopia in the 2000s, and to examine the cause and resolution of confl icts within
the PA system. The results indicate that the state-private partnership established in the case
of Nechisar National Park echoed the fortress conservation approach taken by the previous
government and made confl icts with local communities more complicated and possibly
unresolvable. Conversely, another case suggests that increased security with respect to the
land and property rights of local communities reduces the incidence of land-use confl icts
with park authorities. The new wildlife policy issued in 2007 may improve the overall
community-based conservation dynamic and has great potential for providing improved
solutions for confl icts due to increased understanding, appreciation, and valuing of local
livelihoods by the government.

Key Words: Neoliberal conservation; Protected area; Ethiopia; Confl ict; Natural resources.

PDF file of body text (1,784 KB)