Top > African Study Monographs > ASM Supplementary Issue Back Number > No. 49 (2014)

An Integrated Study on Non-Timber Forest Products in Southeastern Cameroon: Toward Conservation and Sustainable Use of Tropical Forest


Edited by Masaaki HIRAI, Hirokazu YASUOKA, Bernard-Aloys NKONGMENECK & Mitsuo ICHIKAWA


PREFACE

Masaaki HIRAI, Hirokazu YASUOKA, Bernard-Aloys NKONGMENECK & Mitsuo ICHIKAWA

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pp. 3-10

HOW TO INTEGRATE A GLOBAL ISSUE OF FOREST CONSERVATION WITH LOCAL INTERESTS: INTRODUCTION TO THE SATREPS PROJECT IN SOUTHEASTERN CAMEROON

Mitsuo ICHIKAWA
Center for African Area Studies, Kyoto University

ABSTRACT
      Conservation of tropical rainforests, with their rich biological diversity and high potentials for carbon sequestration, has become a major global issue. While Cameroon has witnessed an increase in the number of protected areas in the southeastern part of the country during the past 15 years, this has resulted in the restriction of access of local people to the forest. Since the new forest law in 1994, most parts of the forest in Cameroon have been divided either into protected areas, or forest management units subject to current or future logging operations. There is a growing conflict between the global issue of conservation and the interest of the local people in their livelihood. The Scientific and Technological Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS), a Japanese overseas cooperation project, addresses this issue through establishing a sustainable use of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) among the local people, which is compatible with the conservation of tropical forest. In this paper, the outline of the SATREPS project is described, and some of the interim outputs from the Projects are presented.

Key Words: NTFPs; Sustainable use; Local livelihood; Interim reports.

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pp. 13-46

VEGETATION STRUCTURE AND SPECIES COMPOSITION AT THE NORTHERN PERIPHERY OF THE BOUMBA-BEK NATIONAL PARK, SOUTHEASTERN CAMEROON

Vice Clotèxe TAJEUKEM
Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé 1
Evariste FONGNZOSSIE FEDOUNG
Higher Teacher’s Training School for Technical Education (ENSET), University of Douala
Victor Aimé KEMEUZE
Department of Plant Biology, University of Ngaoundéré
Bernard-Aloys NKONGMENECK
Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé 1

ABSTRACT
Forest conservation outside protected areas is taking center stage in global conservation discourse. This study was conducted to clarify the species composition, vegetation structure and plant diversity at the northern periphery of the Boumba-Bek National Park, whose timber and Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) have been used by the local peoples and logging companies. A total of 16 transects measuring 5 km in length and 5 m in width were delineated. The survey recorded DBH of all tree individuals above 10 cm. The result shows a total number of 17,583 trees with a density of 439.6 stems/ha (total area = 40 ha). These trees belong to 51 families, 169 genera and 247 species. Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H’) ranged from 5.94 to 6.51 and higher diversity was recorded in the Agroforest Zone. The family importance index (FIV) marked highest score for Euphorbiaceae and Combretaceae. The importance index for species (IVI) was higher for Terminalia superba, Musanga cecropioides, Anonidium mannii and Celtis mildbraedii. The height-class distribution of the species shows that the majority of trees belong to the height-class of 5–20 m, which accounts for the average of 87.4% of total stems. The diameter-class distribution of the trees shows an inverse J-shape curve. The study concludes that this forest, despite having undergone disturbance in past years driven by logging and agriculture, is relatively rich and diversified.

Key Words: Tropical moist forest; Transect survey; Species composition; Forest structure; Plant diversity.

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pp. 47-67

SPECIES COMPOSITION AND ABUNDANCE OF NON-TIMBER FOREST PRODUCTS AMONG THE DIFFERENT-AGED COCOA AGROFORESTS IN SOUTHEASTERN CAMEROON

Stéphanie PENANJO
Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé 1
Evariste FONGNZOSSIE FEDOUNG
Higher Teacher’s Training School for Technical Education (ENSET), University of Douala
Victor Aimé KEMEUZE
Department of Plant Biology, University of Ngaoundéré
Bernard-Aloys NKONGMENECK
Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé 1

ABSTRACT
      The study has been conducted to clarify the species composition and abundance of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) of the cocoa agroforests in the Gribe village, southeastern Cameroon. A total of 40 cocoa-farmed plots were sampled and divided into four age-classes. The number of sampled plots by age class are: (a) 10 plots with 0–10-year-old plot, (b) 10, 10–20-year-old, (c) 10, 20–30-year-old and (d) 10, over 30-year-old. A vegetation survey on these plots recorded a total of 3,879 individual trees. They were classified into 166 species, 131 genera and 45 families. The most diversified families were Rubiaceae (including 13 species), Annonaceae (12) Sterculiaceae (10), Euphorbiaceae (9), Caesalpiniaceae and Moraceae (8 for each). The top ten leading dominant species were Musanga cecropioides, Terminalia superba, Ficus mucuso, Celtis mildbraedii, Pterocarpus soyauxii, Triplochiton scleroxylon, Margaritaria discoidea, Markhamia lutea, Trilepisium madagascariense, and Ficus exasperata. The mean values of the Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H’) increased with the age of cocoa plot: 4.8 for the age class of 0–10-year-old, 4.7 for 10–20-year-old, 5.1 for 20–30-year-old and 5.6 for over 30-year-old. An ethnobotanical survey revealed that majority of the recorded species were used either as food (54%), medicine (33%) or for other purposes. We conclude that the cocoa agroforests, maintained by the Gribe people, include a high diversity of NTFP species.

Key Words: Cocoa agroforest; NTFP diversity; Ethnobotanical survey.

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pp. 69-90

DENSITY AND NATURAL REGENERATION POTENTIAL OF SELECTED NON-TIMBER FOREST PRODUCTS SPECIES IN THE SEMI-DECIDUOUS RAINFOREST OF SOUTHEASTERN CAMEROON

Evariste FONGNZOSSIE FEDOUNG
Higher Teacher’s Training School for Technical Education (ENSET), University of Douala
Marlène NGANSOP TOUNKAM
Louis ZAPFACK
Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé 1
Victor Aimé KEMEUZE
Department of Plant Biology, University of Ngaoundéré
Denis Jean SONWA
Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)
Guy Merlin NGUENANG
German Cooperation, GIZ-ProPSFE program, Bertoua - Cameroon
Bernard-Aloys NKONGMENECK
Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé 1

ABSTRACT
      This study was conducted to determine the population structure and the status of natural regeneration for eight edible and/or commercial wild fruit tree species (Afrostyrax lepidophyllus, Baillonella toxisperma, Irvingia gabonensis, Panda oleosa, Pentaclethra macrophylla, Ricinodendron heudelotii, Scorodophloeus zenkeri and Tetrapleura tetraptera) in semi-deciduous rainforest of southeastern Cameroon. We established 16 transects with 5 km in length and 20 m in width each. Along each transect, all individuals, from seedlings to mature trees, of the eight species were recorded and their diameter at breast height (DBH) was measured. The results show high density values for Afrostyrax lepidophyllus (32.0 ± SD 26.1 stems/ ha), Ricinodendron heudelotii (10.3 ± 18.5 stems/ha), Pentaclethra macrophylla (11.3 ± 8.2 stems/ ha) and Scorodophloeus zenkeri (7.4 ± 12.8 stems/ha). The lowest density was reported for Baillonella toxisperma (0.1 ± 0.1 stems/ha). The investigated species have numerous seedlings, saplings and young trees, except Baillonella toxisperma, Irvingia gabonensis, Panda oleosa and Tetrapleura tetraptera (0.04, 1.05, 0.51 and 0.37 individuals of DBH < 5 cm per ha, respectively). They have relatively low natural regeneration index and are considered of priority for conservation in this forest. The study demonstrates the need to intensify the domestication or assisted natural regeneration of these wild fruit trees in degraded areas and to develop innovative approaches to multiple-use forestry, which could include NTFPs, timber and environmental services.

Key Words: Population structure; Natural regeneration; NTFP; Conservation.

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pp. 91-114

SPECIES RICHNESS, SPATIAL DISTRIBUTIONS AND DENSITIES OF LARGE- AND MEDIUM-SIZED MAMMALS IN THE NORTHERN PERIPHERY OF BOUMBA-BEK NATIONAL PARK, SOUTHEASTERN CAMEROON

Kadiri Serge BOBO (1)(2)
Towa Olivier William KAMGAING (1)
Bonito Chia NTUMWEL (1)
Djafsia KAGALANG (1)
Paulin Nghoueda Jean KENGNE (1)
Serge Mekongo Laurent NDENGUE (1)
Marie Michele Ngo BADJECK (1)
Florence Fodjou Mariam AGHOMO (1)
(1) Department of Forestry, Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences, University of Dschang
(2) School for the Training of Wildlife Specialists Garoua, Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife, Cameroon

ABSTRACT
      This study provides basic data on the species richness, spatial distributions, and densities of large- and medium-sized mammals in two Community Hunting Zones (CHZs 13 and 14) located in the northern periphery of Boumba-Bek National Park, southeastern Cameroon. The survey was conducted along 126 2-km transects and 101 recce walkways between transects, over a total of 398 km. A total of 31 species, or groups of species, of large- and medium-sized mammals were observed. The highest encounter rates (ERs) were recorded for red duikers (8.74 signs/km), blue duiker (6.12), and brush-tailed porcupine (4.42). Relatively high ERs (0.5 or more) were observed for elephant, red river hog, tree pangolin, yellow-backed duiker, and gorilla. Human activities including hunting and snaring were widely observed in the study area. Spatial distribution analysis revealed that different species were affected differently by human activities. In CHZ 13, an area more populated by humans, populations of red duikers and red river hog, important game animals for the local people, appeared to have decreased. In contrast, duikers and red river hog remained in CHZ 14 at similar levels as in the neighboring national parks. These results suggest that areas neighboring the park can exist in different stages of animal deterioration; therefore, the situation should be examined carefully to elaborate an effective wildlife management model that contributes not only to the conservation of biodiversity but also to the sustainable use of bushmeat by local people.

Key Words: Bushmeat hunting; Boumba-Bek National Park; Community Hunting Zone; Large- and medium-sized mammals; Wildlife management.

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pp. 115-136

SNARE HUNTING AMONG BAKA HUNTER-GATHERERS: IMPLICATIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT

Hirokazu YASUOKA
Faculty of Humanity and Environment, Hosei University

ABSTRACT
      Diversity in hunting methods has been reported among the Mbuti net hunters in Ituri in northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, among the Baka hunters in southeastern Cameroon, who currently practice snare hunting as their principal method, and among other hunter-gatherers in central African forests. Although forest duikers are the main targets of all of these hunters, different species of duikers are captured by different methods. Blue duikers (Philantomba monticola) weighing about 4–5 kg comprise the majority of the Mbuti’s net-hunting harvests, whereas red duikers (in particular, Cephalophus callipygus and C. dorsalis) weighing about 15–20 kg are the major catch in Baka snare hunting. The density of duikers in each area is reflected in the rate of captures: the density of blue duikers is higher in the forests used by Mbuti net hunters, and red duikers are more abundant in the Baka area. Thus, it is likely that the relative abundance of each species is one of the major contributors to the selection of an efficient hunting method. Indeed, non-traditional methods may be selected as a result of adaptation to ecological conditions, the availability of hunting tools, and the changing role of hunting in the livelihoods of hunters. An understanding of the context in which hunting methods are selected is needed to design an effective wildlife management plan that is acceptable to the local people who depend on hunting for their livelihood.

Key Words: African Pygmy; Hunting method; Blue duiker; Red duiker; Southeastern Cameroon; Wildlife management.

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pp. 139-168

PEOPLE AND SOCIAL ORGANIZATIONS IN GRIBE, SOUTHEASTERN CAMEROON

Mikako TODA
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University

ABSTRACT
      Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) continue to draw attention due to their direct potential to increase the income of Bantu women and Baka Pygmies, who do not grow commercial crops (e.g., cacao). Until recently, Bantu men managed these forest resources; however, NTFPs have become commercialized, which has led to the formation of community associations with women as core members. This paper examines the role of the resident associations and the problems they encounter as they attempt ensure the sustainable use of NTFPs. It describes the composition of the village and the families that reside there, the ethnically-based distinctions in social status, and the socio-economic changes in the area. Even though village politics are centered around the Bantu chief, the relationships among different clans and lineages within the village remain characterized by latent social tensions and conflicts. The present-day local associations strongly reflect social relationships in the local communities. For example, Baka men and women are not included in these associations despite the fact that NTFPs are important to their livelihood. The socio-economic changes related to NTFPs have provided the Bantu, who have gained economic power, with a distinctive advantage. This study examined how the local residents in southeastern Cameroon changed their lifestyle and social associations to adapt to new social and economic conditions in the country. Ultimately, the research indicates the need for a social system that guarantees both improvements in the standard of living and the sustainable use of forest products for all groups involved.

Key Words: Association; Baka hunter-gatherers; Bantu-speaking cultivators; NTFPs; Social change.

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pp. 169-202

AGRICULTURAL LAND USE, COLLECTION AND SALES OF NON-TIMBER FOREST PRODUCTS IN THE AGROFOREST ZONE IN SOUTHEASTERN CAMEROON

Masaaki HIRAI
Center for African Area Studies, Kyoto University

ABSTRACT
      This study examined (1) land use pattern and impact of the shifting cultivation on the forest, (2) importance of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) to the livelihoods and (3) production and sales of wild fruits with market values, among the local people in the Non-permanent Forest Domain near Gribe village. The results suggested a forest recover from the cultivated land, which is due to small scale of land clearance, long fallow periods, remnant trees in the cleared fields, as well as the land inheritance system. It is also suggested that such an extensive land use may improve the availability of some plant NTFPs, while affecting negatively the wild animal’s abundance. The wild fruits contributed significantly to the household economy, but the fruit production varied extremely from year to year and the sales of the products led to a greater economic gap between the Baka and the Konabembe, who had different relationships with the market. In order to combine forest conservation with the people’s interest, it is important to understand the availability of NTFPs, and appreciate the potentials of people’s knowledge of the forest and their capacity for managing the forest and NTFPs.

Key Words: Shifting cultivation; Resources collection; Fruit production; Household economy; Baka hunter-gatherers; Konabembe agriculturalist.

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