Edited by Jun IKENO
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CHANGE AND CONTINUITY IN A MALAWIAN VILLAGE: 2003/04 TO 2008/09
Department of International Agricultural Development, Tokyo University of Agriculture
Using comparable household data collected in a Malawian village in 2003/04 and 2008/09, this paper assesses the effects of the Agricultural Input Subsidy Program on household food security and examines change and continuity in household livelihood situations. The subsidy program contributed to the increased use of fertilizer and improved maize yields and food security in both rich and poor households. These improvements, however, did not lead to changes in income portfolios or asset bases among the poor, and the disparities between rich and poor households also remained unchanged.
Key Words: Malawi; Food security; Livelihood; Subsidy; Maize.
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AGRICULTURAL POLICIES AND FOOD SECURITY OF SMALLHOLDER FARMERS IN ZAMBIA
Graduate School of Social Sciences, Hitotsubashi University
This article explores the food security of Zambian small-scale farmers by reviewing government policies and programs in the 1990s and 2000s that affected farmer food security, with a particular focus on subsidized input transfer programs. Economic reforms to liberalize the economy in the 1990s, including liberalization of agricultural marketing, resulted in stagnation of maize production due to decreased use of fertilizer. Zambia implemented two subsidized input transfer programs in the 2000s, the Fertilizer Support Program and the Food Security Pack. These programs succeeded in increasing fertilizer use and maize output, but these increases incurred huge budgetary and administrative costs. As small-scale farmers grow maize and other crops that rely on rain-fed farming, their maize outputs are volatile, and subsidized input transfer can result in fi nancing crop failure. Simplifi ed maize balance sheets for 17 farming households were calculated based on fi eld research at one suburban-area village. The majority of the sampled farmers recorded defi cits on their maize balance sheets. They purchased maize with the revenues from output sales from dambo gardening and/or from petty vegetable sales.
Key Words: Food security; Small-scale farmers; Input transfer program; Fertilizer subsidies; Economic liberalization.
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FARMLAND UTILIZATION AND CROPPING STRATEGIES DURING A WORLD FOOD CRISIS: A CASE STUDY OF RICE PRODUCERS IN THE LOWER SENEGAL RIVER VALLEY
Graduate School of Asian & African Area Studies (ASAFAS), Kyoto University
This study entailed an empirical investigation of farmland utilization and cropping strategies under conditions of a sharp increase, followed by a collapse, in rice prices. The results are based on a fi eld survey conducted by the author in Village T in the Lower Senegal River Valley, the center of rice production in Senegal. This paper fi rst discusses the exploitation and rehabilitation of farmland under conditions of increased rice prices, along with agricultural programs of the Senegalese government. Increased rice prices and the implementation of programs allowed villagers to reinforce a foundation for their livelihoods through collective effort. Next, the paper describes farmland utilization and farming expenses under conditions of price increases and collapse and demonstrates how the villagers use rice as a subsistence crop and plant tomatoes as their main cash crop to ensure their own food security. The results reveal that the villagers have planned several alternatives and apply these options under specifi c political, economic, or social conditions.
Key Words: Agricultural fi nance; Domestic production; Livelihood strategy; Rice; Senegal.
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DRY-SEASON IRRIGATION FARMING AT THE WESTERN FOOT OF THE NORTH PARE MOUNTAINS, TANZANIA
Graduate School of Asian & African Area Studies (ASAFAS), Kyoto University
A small-scale irrigation farming activity had been performed at the foot of one mountain in northeastern Tanzania during the dry season from the early 1990s. Although currently inoperative, this activity represented one example of local initiative in response to wider politico-socio-economic changes after the era of structural adjustment. When the individuals at my research site encounter economic hardship, they use their traditional adaptability to develop this approach to survival. The fi rst aim of this article is to describe the details of these activities because no offi cial and/or private written records of this activity exist. The second aim is to provide evidence of the norms underpinning the organizational efforts that reached beyond the level of individual households in Tanzania and were initiated in the context of limited resources such as water.
Key Words: Food security; Livelihood; Irrigation; Coping strategy; Tanzania.
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NEW ACTORS IN THE LIVESTOCK SECTOR IN THE KILIMANJARO REGION
Faculty of Agriculture, Kinki University
This paper analyzes the challenges and potential of the livestock sector in the Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania using fi eld research conducted in Maua village, which is situated on the southern slope of Mt. Kilimanjaro. The Maua people keep every livestock in a hutch, which should suggest to policy makers the magnitude of the problems they and other pastoralists face with the shift from a grazing to a form of feedlot system. Indeed, smallholder livestock farmers face major problems related to feeding, marketing, and breeding. The Maua people cope with these problems in various ways. The residues of from squeezing boiled bananas to produce the local beer are used as concentrates to supplement grain fed to cattle, and they collect many kinds of roughage such as maize leaves and banana leaves to replace roughage from grazing. The high cost of transporting livestock from lower to higher land also represents a major issue. The Maua people face two options in marketing livestock; one is to sell to a local butcher, and the other is to sell to other farmers. The limited market constitutes the most severe problem and requires further examination. The introduction of a pig project operated by the women, referred to as KIWAKUKI, represents the most intriguing development in response to these problems. This project expanded widely in the studied area, and this paper discusses three effects the project had on those living in the village: supporting victims of HIV/AIDS, empowering women, and spreading the practice of pig keeping. This project placed women, who organized new groups for keeping another type of livestock and for providing mutual help, in new leadership roles. We can see the potential for alternative forms of organization in such new leadership arrangements.
Key Words: Livestock sector; Feedlot system; KIWAKUKI project; Women’s empowerment; Local marketing of livestock.
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LAND SUBDIVISION AND LAND USE CHANGE IN THE FRONTIER SETTLEMENT ZONE OF MOUNT MERU, TANZANIA
Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University
Taking an example from the frontier settlement zone of the mountainous areas in Arusha Region, Northeastern Tanzania, this study examines whether and how far land subdivision information can illuminate the way in which rural livelihood transformation has been refl ected in land use at the local, land parcel scale for the period from 1962 to 2008, with a general scarcity of longitudinal information on the livelihood of rural households. It combines the reconstruction of the land subdivision process by way of Differential Global Positioning System land parcel measurements and interviews with smallholders on changing land ownership on the one hand, and the land cover/use analysis of aerial photo/satellite images on the other. Employing remote sensing and Geographical Information System techniques, the study identifi es the land use patterns of particular households in particular years and examines the changes in relation to land subdivision, which is central to livelihoods. This study confi rms that the initial expansion of home garden has stopped and that the land use pattern has begun to change in the reverse direction toward enlargement of cultivated open spaces, as previous studies have reported in an aggregated manner for the neighboring Kilimanjaro area. The present study also demonstrates that this process has developed along with land subdivision and is to be understood with the distinction between resident and non-resident use of the frontier zone.
Key Words: Land subdivision; Land use change; Local scale; Livelihood; Tanzania.
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FEATURES OF LAND CONFLICTS IN POST CIVIL WAR RWANDA
JICA Research Institute
Institut de Recherche Scientifi que et Technologique
Land confl icts in Rwanda have attracted particular attention because they have both environmental and political causes. This paper attempts to shed light on the nature of land confl icts in present-day Rwanda based on popular justice records and interviews collected in two rural areas. From the analyses of these data, two types of land confl ict can be distinguished. The fi rst type consists of those among family members. Given that land is the most important asset for ordinary rural households, its inheritance often brings about confl icts between right-holders. Those of the second type are triggered by political change. Impacts of the two national-level violent confl icts in Rwanda, the “social revolution” just before independence and the civil war in the 1990s, are of tremendous signifi cance in this context. The military victory of the former rebels in 1994 caused a massive return of Tutsi refugees, who were offi cially permitted to acquire land from the original inhabitants. Although no serious protestation against this policy has occurred thus far, it has produced various land confl icts. Dealing with potential grievances among original inhabitants is an important challenge for the present government.
Key Words: Land; Confl ict; Rwanda; Family; Politics.
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ABOUT THE ATTACHED CD: DIGITAL DATA ON FOOD SECURITY AND LIVELIHOOD IN RURAL AFRICA
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University
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