Top > African Study Monographs > ASM Supplementary Issue Back Number > No.36 (2007)
Rural Development Reconsidered: People's Responses to Globalization in Tanzania

Edited by Juichi ITANI and Minako ARAKI


pp.1-2

Preface

Juichi ITANI and Minako ARAKI

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pp. 3-18

DEVELOPMENT OF A MAJOR RICE CULTIVATION AREA IN THE KILOMBERO VALLEY, TANZANIA

Futoshi KATO
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University

ABSTRACT
   After economic liberalisation in Tanzania, rice cultivation rapidly expanded as a source of income, and several production areas formed. The Kilombero Valley, located in central southern Tanzania, is a major rice production area. The people residing in the valley had already developed the original rice paddy cultivation system for subsistence farming by the mid nineteenth century. The system depends on run-off from a flooded tributary of the Kilombero River. Recently, production using the indigenous cultivation system has increased and has produced a surplus for sale. However, suitable lands for the flood cultivation system are limited to narrow riversides. One reason why rice production has successfully increased is the introduction of modern technologies, such as tractors and trucks, into the indigenous system. Tractors and trucks have enabled the expansion of paddy fields to remote areas, and as a result, rice production has increased. At the same time, abundant production has accelerated the trading of rice and has increased opportunities for trading. Thus, increased rice production in the Kilombero Valley based on the established indigenous cultivation system has led to activation of the rice market.

Key Words: Economic liberalisation; Endogenous development; Flood; Indigenous cultivation; Tractor and truck.

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pp. 19-38

MULTIPLE USES OF SMALL-SCALE VALLEY BOTTOM LAND:CASE STUDY OF THE MATENGO IN SOUTHERN TANZANIA

Ryugo KUROSAKI
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University

ABSTRACT
   Many recent studies have examined wetlands as a food supply resource in sub-Saharan Africa. Although a number of studies have investigated the use of large-scale wetlands such as swamps and floodplains, little is known about the use of small-scale valley bottom lands. The Matengo, who are Bantu speakers living in mountainous southern Tanzania, have developed intensive use of ntambo, the principal unit of land tenure and use. Ntambo land use is based on an indigenous farming system called ngolo as well as coffee cultivation. At the same time, small valley bottom lands ( kijungu ) have also been used. In recent years, people have begun to pay greater attention to diversifying kijungu land use against the backdrop of economic liberalisation, climate change, and population pressure.Cultivating the kijungu provides the Matengo not only with food during times of scarcity but also with petty cash called 'hela ya haraka' for daily use throughout the year. As their use is diversified and expanded, kijungu may be vital for sustaining the Matengo's livelihood and will become increasingly important in enforcing relationships between other subsistence activities.

Key Words: Cooperative Union; El Niño; Ngolo ; SAP; Taro.

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pp. 39-58

FARMERS' COPING STRATEGIES TO A CHANGED COFFEE MARKET AFTER ECONOMIC LIBERALIZATION: THE CASE OF MBINGA DISTRICT IN TANZANIA

David G. MHANDO
Centre for Sustainable Rural Development, Sokoine University of Agriculture
Juichi ITANI
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University

ABSTRACT
   The Mbinga District of Tanzania is a major coffee production area occupied by the Matengo, who cultivate food and cash crops. In 1986, the Tanzanian government introduced Structural Adjustment Programmes, and in 1993, liberalized the coffee market. As a result, subsidies to agricultural inputs were abandoned, and the cooperative union that had been responsible for coffee production and marketing in Mbinga collapsed. At the same time, improvements to growing and processing technologies and the entry of new coffee-producing countries caused overproduction in the global coffee market; thus, the price of coffee decreased to an unprecedented level. With the excessive supply, prices remain in stagnation, but the costs of agricultural inputs continue to rise. Mbinga farmers have pushed for various policy changes regarding coffee production and the natural and social environment while making the best use of the lessens learned from their initial experiences in the new market economy. They have structurally transformed the rural economy, whereby income is generated by distributing the coffee revenue that used to be invested in business. They also have developed a risk-management strategy. In the 10 years since economic liberalization, the farmers abandoned the state system, became economically self-reliant, and modified the structure of the rural economy.

Key Words: Cassava; Diversification; MBICU; Pig; Valley bottom.

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pp. 59-70

LOCAL NOTIONS OF PARTICIPATION AND DIVERSIFICATION OF GROUP ACTIVITIES IN SOUTHERN TANZANIA

Minako ARAKI
Faculty of Letters and Education, Ochanomizu University

ABSTRACT
   Rural economy and livelihood in Mbinga used to have fully depended on coffee. However, due to the decline of economy under the influence of economic liberalization, coffee production was declined, and the farmers have faced problems. Due to the changed situation, they began searching for economic opportunities and information, and this created the need to work together to solve problems. While having interaction with SCSRD project, it has emerged as Sengu Committee and farmers' groups. The Sengu Committee was formed during construction of a hydro-mill, and it was named as sengu so as to inherit spirit of sengu and work with one aim. The formation of Sengu Committee and the subsequent activities led establishment of groups, which carry out activities related environmental conservation and diversification of economic activities. Some groups have engaged in reciprocal labour as part of group activities, others diversified capacity-built through group activities into other activities such as construction of water supply and a mini hydro-mill. Participation is taking place in different forms according to the context.

Key Words: Rural development; Environmental conservation; Process; Capacity building; Matengo.

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pp. 71-93

CHANGING LIVELIHOODS AND THE ENVIRONMENT ALONG LAKE NYASA, TANZANIA

Stephen J. NINDI
Centre for Sustainable Rural Development, Sokoine University of Agriculture

ABSTRACT
   People living along the Lake Nyasa shore, Tanzania relies largely on fishing and cultivation of cassava and rice. The fishing industry has shaped the sociopolitical organisation of local people. The Matengo Highlands and Livingstone Mountains act as catchments of Lake Nyasa. The relationship between the land use in the catchments, Nyasa people's livelihood and the lake fishing environment is intriguing, because of the belief that catchment forests and streams help make the lake basin a rich habitat. However, recent microeconomic changes in the Matengo Highlands have subjected the catchment areas to undue deforestation from uncoordinated farming activities. The unprecedented degradation of the catchments has disrupted the fish ecology, hence dwindling livelihood opportunities. The local population has had to diversify livelihood strategies. This study examined the changing livelihoods and the environment along Lake Nyasa and mitigation that people have made in response to the changing fishing environment. Extensive surveys and farmer exchange visits were employed to collect diachronic information on livelihood and environmental dynamics along Lake Nyasa and in the Matengo Highlands. Farmers' exchange visits between the Nyasa and the Matengo allowed villagers to share insights and experiences in an attempt to establish mutual strategiesll for sustainable local resource management.

Key Words: Lake Nyasa; Catchments degradation; Livelihood diversifications; Kumbi ; Farmers' exchange visit.

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