Top > African Study Monographs > ASM Supplementary Issue Back Number > No.29 (2005)
Environment, Livelihood and Local Praxis in Asia and Africa.

Edited by Masayoshi SHIGETA and Yntiso GEBRE


Preface

Masayoshi SHIGETA
Yntiso GEBRE

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pp. 1-18

AREA STUDIES APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF THE ENVIRONMENT, LIVELIHOODS, AND LOCAL PRAXIS IN ASIA AND AFRICA: HISTORY AND PROGRESS AT KYOTO UNIVERSITY AND ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY

Masayoshi SHIGETA
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University
GEBRE Yntiso
Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology, Addis Ababa University

ABSTRACT
   This is the introductory paper to "Environment, Livelihoods, and Local Praxis in Asia and Africa" and it focuses on the approaches to Area Studies currently used at Kyoto University, Japan, and Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia, with special reference to their historical background and progress. A formal program in Asian and African Area Studies was established at Kyoto University in the Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies (ASAFAS) in 1998, and it has produced several Ph.D. graduates. The Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology (SOSA) at Addis Ababa University was established in 1962, and the MA program in Social Anthropology (SOAN) was launched in 1990. Whereas SOSA studies focus mainly on anthropological and sociological studies within Ethiopia, ASAFAS covers Asian and African countries. The background to these two institutions, their establishment and accomplishments, and the thematic focus and geographic coverage are overviewed. Finally, the organization of this volume and the contents of each paper are summarized.

Key Words: Africa; Area studies; Asia; Ethiopia; Post-graduate program.

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pp. 19-30

COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN REHABILITATION, CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF MANGROVES: LESSONS FROM COASTAL AREAS OF SOUTH SULAWESI, INDONESIA

Andi AMRI
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University

ABSTRACT
    Local people in Tongke Tongke of Sinjai District, located on southeast coast of South Sulawesi (Indonesia), began to rehabilitate the coastal condition through mangrove plantation following example of the Pangasa villagers. They extended plantation plots step by step by planting seedlings of Rhizophora mucronata and succeeded in establishing mangrove forests Nowadays, they can provide mangrove seedlings to other districts in South Sulawesi, such as Bulukumba, Maros and Bantaeng, through mangrove rehabilitation programs supported by the Department of Forestry. The study was carried out in areas where mangrove conservation and rehabilitation were initiated and promoted collaboratively by both local people and governmental institutions in order to clarify the role of community participation in utilization, conservation and management of mangroves. Since mangrove conservation requires long–term maintenance, the expectation of local people in terms of both short-term and long-term economic benefits to be obtained from mangrove rehabilitation should be taken into consideration.

Key Words: Community participation; Mangrove rehabilitation; Economic benefit; Coastal resource management; South Sulawesi.

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pp. 31-40

DIFFERING LOCAL ATTITUDES TOWARD CONSERVATION POLICY: A CASE STUDY OF MAGO NATIONAL PARK, ETHIOPIA

Nobuko NISHIZAKI
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University / Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science

ABSTRACT
    Communities are now the focal point of conservationist thinking. In this paper I present a recent cooperative attitude of a community toward wildlife conservation in southwestern Ethiopia. Moreover, attempts are made to analyze the historical relationships between the community and the park authority. No severe conflicts arose between the park authority and the villagers until the 1990s. The relationships could have worsened considerably when hunting in the Mago National Park intensified after the regime change in 1991. However, it was also at this point that the villagers began to reduce their direct use of the natural resources in the park. Then, relationships of both sides have taken a new turn. New form of leadership in the community is now able to deal effectively with the conservation issues.

Key Words: Wildlife conservation; Local attitudes; Hunting; Southwestern Ethiopia.

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pp. 41-51

NATURE CONSERVATION AND HUNTER GATHERERS' LIFE IN CAMEROONIAN RAINFOREST

Shiho HATTORI
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University

ABSTRACT
   The policy and strategy of nature conservation projects in Africa have been changing due to various failed cases since the colonial period. “Collaborative management” with the local populations and “adaptive management” to the changing local conditions are introduced as progressive approaches in the conservation project of southeastern Cameroon. The Baka hunter-gatherers who are directly influenced by the project, are expected to be future conservators by the conservation agent. However, they do not show much interest in the project. One of the main factors for their indifference lies in the contents of the project, which does not take into consideration the actual life of the Baka. The Baka not only depend on a variety of forest resources, but also on farm and industrial products. Zoning of land-use patterns and hunting regulations are not compatible with the Baka life, which is characterized by nomadism and heavy dependence on forest animals for food and cash income. Moreover, environmental education in a top-down way with an intermediary of dominant farmer agents may lead to reinforcing or reproducing the existing subordinate relationship of the Baka with the neighboring farmers. These points should be taken into consideration for designing an effective conservation plan.

Key Words: Baka hunter-gatherers; Conservation project; Collaborative management; Zoning of land use; Hunting regulation.

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pp. 53-60

ETHNOBOTANY OF THE PENAN BENALUI OF EAST KALIMANTAN, INDONESIA: DIFFERENCE OF ETHNOBOTANICAL KNOWLEDGE AMONG VILLAGERS OF LONG BELAKA

Miyako KOIZUMI
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University

ABSTRACT
    Penan Benalui of East Kalimantan are a subgroup of Western Penan, one of the hunter-gatherer groups of Borneo in Indonesia. The Penan Benalui were nomads living in the forest of the interior part of Borneo until they settled down in villages in the 1960s. During the fieldwork in a Penan Benalui village in 2002, about 560 species of wild plants were collected and their ethnobotanical features were documented. Informants could identify most of the plants and gave about 550 local names. About 75% of the plants were reported to be in use and there were about 70 different uses. The difference in ethnobotanical knowledge was large between men and women of the younger generation. Men knew plants better than women. This was probably because men still go to the forests very often for hunting and gathering while women spend more time in the village.

Key Words: Ethnobotany; Penan; Borneo.

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pp. 61-72

WOMEN'S CRAFT GUILDS AND THE TRADITIONAL BASKETRY (GE MOT) OF HARAR, ETHIOPIA

Belle ASANTE
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University

ABSTRACT
   Traditional Harari basketry (ge mot) continues to be a highly praised craft within the Harari ethnic group. However, between the mid-1970s and the mid-1990s, a sharp decline in weaving among the younger generation of women became apparent to outside researchers, NGOs and the Harari alike. Moreover, the production of several ge mot styles seems to have been significantly reduced in those waning years of craft production. By the late 1990s, there was an attempt to preserve the material culture of the Harari people, and also provide a forum for groups of Harari women to gain greater economic self-reliance through craft work. The three women's weavers associations that were established within the old walled city of Harar at that time are still functioning. These fairly recently formed Harari women's craft guilds have yet to be effectively documented, yet their contributions to the preservation of the Harari way of life may be profound. After an introduction to ge mot, its functions, styles and indicators of a decline in production, this paper will highlight some organizational differences, challenges, and successes of the three Harari women weaver's guilds.

Key Words: Harar; Ethiopia; Basketry; Women's craft guilds.

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pp. 73-81

LEARNING PROCESS OF POTTERY MAKING AMONG ARI PEOPLE, SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA

Morie KANEKO
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University

ABSTRACT
   Pots of Ari people are considered essential utilities in their daily lives. Women artisans, who belong to the socially segregated group called mana, are exclusively engaged in pottery making. In this paper, I describe the forming-technique and the learning process of pottery making among girls by focusing on the fine movement of pottery makers' hands and fingers, the making-stages, the making-processes and the learning orders by classifying the variety of pots. I found four characteristics of forming-techniques and learning processes among young pottery makers. First, 20 units of processes ('U.P') and four making-stages were common to all the pottery makers. Second, pottery makers do not learn each making stage step by step. From the very begining, they do all the making stages to form the whole shape of a pot. Third, according to the finger movement analysis, pottery makers could learn how to make different sizes and shapes of pots by using the 20 'U.P'. Fourth, although they say they have a certain degree of difficulty in forming various shapes of pots, young pottery makers do not follow a consistent order of learning. Each maker follows different sequential orders. Even sisters do not seem to pursue a consistent learning order. Pottery making is not just about technology as people attach social, cultural, and economic meanings to it.

Key Words: Forming-technique; Making process; Finger movement patterns; Unit of 'Process' ; Learning process.

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pp. 83-94

WOMEN WORKING AT HAIRDRESSING: A CASE STUDY OF A RAPIDLY INCREASING BUSINESS AMONG WOMEN IN URBAN GHANA

Yukiyo ODA
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University

ABSTRACT
   For a long time, economic activities have been important for women in southern Ghana to support their children and themselves. Among women's activities in urban areas, hairdressing is the one that has flourished recently. The study examines socio-economic and other factors that have resulted in this rapid increase of hairdressing, especially from the perspective of the entrants' reason for occupational choice. Findings show that hairdressing has become attractive to women not only as a source of income but also because of its flexibility and compatibility with domestic work. Diffusion of hair relaxing has influence on the increase of salon demand. Institutionalisation of hairdressing training system also has impact on attracting young people who have begun to regard hairdressing as a skilled, fashionable and modern occupation. As a result, hairdressing apprenticeship has became one of the major recourses for women with basic education.

Key Words: Ghana; Women's economic activity; Hairdressing; Structural Adjustment Programme; Apprenticeship.

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pp. 95-105

A STUDY ON THE SHIFTING CULTIVATION SYSTEM IN KALAHARI WOODLAND, WESTERN ZAMBIA, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO CASSAVA MANAGEMENT

Rumiko MURAO
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University

ABSTRACT
    The Kalahari Sands found all over southern Africa have been described as not being suitable for agriculture. However, Kalahari woodland developed on the same Kalahari sands of western Zambia and Angolan immigrants who escaped the war settled on the woodland. Their livelihoods are dependent on growing cassava, their staple and cash crop. The cassava grown by the Angolan immigrants on the Kalahari Sands depends on the natural nutrients in the sandy soils. The cultivation system established by the immigrants on rather poor soils is closely related to the social organization of the immigrants. This paper thus examines not only the cultivation system, but also their social organization supporting the system by reciprocal help in the poor environment.

Key Words: Kalahari Sands; Kalahari woodland; Angolan immigrants; Cassava cuttings; Social organization.

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pp. 107-113

INTERACTION OF FORMAL EDUCATION WITH THE HOUSEHOLD ECONOMY IN RURAL ETHIOPIA: THE CASE OF THE WOYISSO-QANCAARA, EAST SHOWA ZONE OF OROMIA REGION

Daniel HAILU
Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology, Addis Ababa University

ABSTRACT
    In recent years, there has been a dramatic rise in enthusiasm for formal education among the rural community of Woyisso-Qancaara. This means that formal education, as an institution that evolved in an alien culture, is coming into closer interaction with the social and economic realities of the inhabitants of Woyisso-Qancaara. Among the implications of this interaction is the ascription of a new status and role of a student on school-going children, which is disturbing the traditional household division of labor. It will be noted that by sending their children to schools, households are forced to incur the opportunity cost of forgoing the immediate use of the labor of their children. The paper describes some mechanisms by which households cope with the resulting labor shortfall. Other than forgoing the labor of their children, parents also needed to invest part of their income on the schooling of their children. The opportunity cost of forgoing labor and the actual cost of supporting schooling combine with the decrease in the average income of households and the rise in population to weaken the economy of households in Woyisso-Qancaara.

Key Words: Formal education; Woyisso-Qancaara; Labor; Opportunity cost; Household income / economy.

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pp. 115-124

LIVELIHOOD CHANGE IN A PHILIPPINE COCONUT FARMING VILLAGE: A CASE STUDY IN LAGUNA PROVINCE

Miho FUJII
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University

ABSTRACT
   This is a study on livelihood transformation in a rural village in the Philippines. It documents the economy of the village during the period of the late 1960s to the 1990s. While the coconut industry has been a major source of livelihood in this village, the village people still sought other economic opportunities. From the 1960s, they worked as seasonal workers in lowland farms, planted vegetables in the mountains, and raised hogs. This research shows that livelihood transformation in this village was facilitated by a combination of several factors: desire of the people to continuously improve their economic situation, opportunities offered by improved infrastructure such as roads, existence of markets for their products (vegetables, hogs), and the favorable land conditions within and in the surrounding areas of the village. The livelihood of this village is not solely dependent on an export-oriented coconut industry, but rather on the wise use of the land and the economic opportunities offered by the domestic market.

Key Words: Coconut industry; Vegetable farming; Upland; Economic transformation.

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pp. 125-135

LAND DISPUTES SETTLEMENT IN A PLURAL 'INSTITUTIONAL' SETTING: THE CASE OF ARSII OROMO OF KOKOSSA DISTRICT, SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA

Mamo HEBO
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University

ABSTRACT
   Land tenure policies are highly contentious political issues in Ethiopia. Most of the debates dwell on the public/state versus private land ownership options. At present, although 'public' land ownership is the only officially recognized one, people may also acquire land through inheritance in the framework of customary rules. One of the outcomes of co-existence(but without integration) of the state instituted land rights and the custombacked ones is the proliferation of disputes over land. This paper attempts to focus on such land disputes and mechanisms of land disputes resolution, taking the case of Kokossa district of Oromia Regional State in Ethiopia. Since 1991, disputes over land have been rampant in Kokossa district. These disputes appear before plural settings for the subsequent settlement. These plural settings can generally be categorized into two: formal, which refers to structures and associated rules that represent the state at various levels, and informal, that refers to institutions(with associated norms) that can be grouped under such generic terms as indigenous, customary or local. In this paper, I briefly discuss the current state of land disputes in Kokossa district and answer the following questions: (1) How do people employ, and sometimes manipulate, the plural settings for disputes settlement? (2) How do these settings for dispute settlement interact? (3) What does the existence of these plural dispute settlement settings mean to the disputants and to the processes of dispute settlement?

Key Words: Land disputes; Dispute settlement; Formal settings; Informal settings; Plural institutional setting; Arsii Oromo.

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pp. 137-142

MUSICAL PERFORMANCE AND SELF-DESIGNATION OF ETHIOPIAN MINSTRELS: AZMARI

Itsushi KAWASE
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University

ABSTRACT
   The performance of Ethiopian minstrels (Azmari) in the Gondar area of Northern Ethiopia can be seen in various social settings including life cycle celebrations, annual events of the Ethiopian Orthodox church, Zar-spirit possession, etc. The abundance of musical activities counters the dominant image of Azmari as musicians just found in local bars. Moreover, Azmari in Gondar share a self-designation based on genealogical ties. The paper treats their folk category as well as genealogy and code of communication as self-imposed group markers that strictly distinguish the in-group. The paper tries to reconstruct the people who have been known as "Azmari" from the above perspectives.

Key Words: Musical activities; Azmari; Self-imposed group markers.

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pp. 143-155

SHARED EXPERIENCES AND THE RECONSTRUCTION OF SOCIAL CATEGORIES: A CASE STUDY OF COMPLEX ETHNIC IDENTITY AMONG THE ARIAAL PASTORALISTS IN NORTHERN KENYA

Naoki NAITO
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University

ABSTRACT
    This essay examines the dynamics of the face-to-face inter-ethnic relationship in a multi-ethnic situation among pastoralists of Northern Kenya. Segmentary descent system is a well known characteristic of East African pastoral society as a means of social interaction (Evans-Pritchard, 1940). As a charactaristic of these systems, each segment (ethnic group, clan, sub-clan, lineage) according to patrilineal descent is sequenced in a highly hierarchical way, and categorizes people clearly with behavior norms (marriage, cohabitation, cooperation etc.). Clanship is especially important in every aspect of their lives. The Ariaal in the Mars abit district of northern Kenya have been reported as being a mixture of the Samburu and Rendille pastoralists as the historical result of migration and alliance between them (Spencer, 1973; Fratkin, 1991). Both the Samburu and Rendille societies have their own segmental descent system. In the Ariaal, people choose parts of both the Samburu and Rendille segmental descent systems. The subject of this essay is the process by which people dismantle preexisting categories and reconstruct them. People have a sense of belonging to their clan, but it depends on the relationships, which are made in two ways. One way creates a sense of belonging by depending on the relationship between segments, including clans. The other way is to create a sense of belonging by depending on individual experience. People create a sense of belonging individually by sharing the experience of cooperating in herding, settling and ceremonies. People can create a sense of belonging somehow by depending on the relationship between segments. This sense of belongingness by depending on the segments as a social category can be interpreted and manipulated in any form. Then, such a category itself would lose actual meaning. It is assumed that people will continue to believe in their descent system, but also create a new sense of belongingness based on shared personal experiences.

Key Words: Sharing experience; Face-to-face interaction; Sharing category; Clanship; Interethnic relationship; East African pastoral society; Segmentary descent system.

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pp. 157-168

MAKING AND UNMAKING OF THE NATION-STATE AND ETHNICITY IN MODERN ETHIOPIA: A STUDY ON THE HISTORY OF THE SILTE PEOPLE

Makoto NISHI
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University

ABSTRACT
    This paper attempts to explain some aspects of the shifting relationship between the state system and ethnicity in modern Ethiopia through a study of the history of the Silte people. Traditionally, the Silte are a Muslim people sharing perceived genealogical ties. In the early 20th century, the people started to engage in coffee trading between Sidama and Addis Abeba. It was when their trade activity was caught up in the realm of state polity that they obtained the identity of the Gurage, an ethnic group that played a significant role in the national economy. At the turn of the century, the people engaged in the politics of identity under the federal system introduced by EPRDF, the ruling party of Ethiopia. Again, it was when the movement was captured by party ideology that Silte Nationality was firmly established. Ethnic identity is often created in the divergence between people's activities to make their own living and the state ideology. The endeavor empowering ethnicity in such a context often places the people in a dilemma - they are compelled to choose to practice the state ideology in a faithful manner or to remain in the "wilderness" of local conflict over resources and identity.

Key Words: Ethnicity; Nation-State; Empowerment; Civil society; Ethiopia.

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pp. 169-183

NEGOTIATING SOCIAL SPACE: SEX-WORKERS AND THE SOCIAL CONTEXT OF SEX WORK IN ADDIS ABABA

Bethlehem TEKOLA
Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology, Addis Ababa University

ABSTRACT
    This paper explores the social life of sex workers in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia. It focuses on the social ties between sex workers and a variety of other people, such as their family members, relatives, roommates, neighbors, coworkers, and clients. It explores these social ties in terms of the way they are (1) affirmed and reinforced, (2) strained and broken, and (3) initiated and cultivated by the women as a result of their engagement in sex work. The main thesis of the work is that sex workers share the same social milieu and value system with non-sex workers and that, despite severe constraints put on them by poverty and very difficult working conditions, they struggle on a daily basis to have a social life and social relevance. The work critiques the very common castigation of sex workers as social misfits who pose dangers to society and proposes a humane approach towards them and their dependents, an approach that should begin by making a clear distinction between the institution of commercial sex and the women who practice it.

Key Words: Addis Ababa; Commercial sex; Sex work; Social ties; 'Prostitution'.

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pp. 185-191

BEGGING AS A MEANS OF LIVELIHOOD: CONFERRING WITH THE POOR AT THE ORTHODOX RELIGIOUS CEREMONIAL DAYS IN ADDIS ABABA

Woubishet DEMEWOZU
Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology, Addis Ababa University

ABSTRACT
   The present ethnographic account, written with insight and sympathy, of the life and problems of the poorest beggars examines life on the street corner, a frontier that was beginning to be made to forcedly and violently vanish by the government after the field work for this study was completed. As such, attempts were made to picture the life of the urban poor on the streets and churchyards of Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia. The problem of beggary has a lot to do with the country's socio-economic and historical trajectories of poverty characterized by low incomes, high unemployment rates, fast-rising cost of living, high rates of population growth, inappropriate public policies and continued rural-urban migration and displacement. The beggars as impoverished underclass presently find themselves in extreme and multifaceted destitution: chronic food shortage and insecurity, illiteracy, homelessness or poor housing often on unsuitable land, disease, unsanitary living conditions, death and above all marginalization and exclusion. The actions and reactions of the destitute beggars are largely restricted to their own habitat; in the social milieu in which they are surviving by themselves within the limits of the larger society by which they are surrounded, from which they are, in large part, outcasts. Social interactions, lacking depth both in the past and in the present, are reflected in terms of support, competition and conflict. Ownership of the poverty agenda, short-term and long-term planning and programming, and sustainability are not likely to come about unless people, and particularly the elites are aware of the dimensions of the problem, have considered and discussed the many causes involved, and have themselves developed programmes and organizational structures for monitoring poverty and implementing pro-poor policies.

Key Words: Means of livelihood; Conferring with the poor; Orthodox religious ce remonial days; Addis Ababa.

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pp. 193-203

SOCIO-CULTURAL DIMENSIONS OF DISPLACEMENT: THE CASE OF DISPLACED PERSONS IN ADDIS ABABA

Dinku LEMESSA
Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology, Addis Ababa University

ABSTRACT
   It is estimated that 1.67 million Ethiopians were displaced between 1991 and 1994. The wars between Ethiopia and Eritrea, for example, resulted in the displacement of thousands of families from their homes in Eritrea. Some of these persons have been rehabilitated and reintegrated into their respective communities. But an overwhelming majority is still living in tents, Kebele Halls, grain stores, plastic shelters, and on streets. At present, they are living in untold misery. Despite the magnitude of the problems of displaced persons (commonly called the 'tefenakkai', literally 'the uprooted'), there is no adequate or comprehensive information on their social and economic situation. In the absence of this, it is difficult to plan long-term rehabilitation programs, which are instrumental for reduction of urban impoverishment and anomie. In Ethiopia, very little attention has been accorded to displacement - a social process that disrupts social order. This paper tries to address the socio-cultural dimensions of displacement in Addis Ababa, with particular reference to the Mekanissa-Qorre area. This group is the largest of the 16 similar displaced groups in the city. Women and children who constitute the largest part of the displaced receive a special emphasis in this paper.

Key Words: War; Displacement; Impoverishment; Anomie; Rehabilitation.

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pp. 205-215

THE TRADE OF SECOND-HAND CLOTHES IN THE LOCAL MEGA CITY MWANZA, TANZANIA: WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE SOCIAL NETWORKS OF MALI KAULI TRANSACTION

Sayaka OGAWA
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University

ABSTRACT
   The purpose of this study is to examine the social relationships of people in a small-scale commercial sector called Machinga by analyzing the unique credit transaction in the trade of second-hand clothes in Mwanza city. The credit transaction described in this presentation is called Mali kauli and is conducted by middlemen and micro-scale retail traders. Previous studies of the urban informal sector argued that credit transactions tend to be conducted by closed groups based on kinship and ethnicity. However, the Mali Kauli transaction is basically formed of purely business relationships and economic rationality rather than relationships originating in rural society. Mali Kauli transaction brings a lot of economic benefits to both middlemen and retailers. On the other hand, this practice has potential for friction because it creates business transactions among people with unreliable relationships. In conclusion, I suggest that the newly-created urban group solidarities such as Machinga generated through Mali Kauli transaction to attain stable transaction, satisfy economic interest, and promote reciprocal help in urban areas.

Key Words: Urban social network; Group solidarity; Informal sector; Second hand clothes; Credit transaction.

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