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The World of Animals Viewed by the San Hunter-Gatherers in Kalahari
Center for Afirican Area Studies, Kyoto University
This paper aims to clarify a part of the African hunter-gatherer perception of nature, by describing the San's perception, classification, utilization of and attitudes toward animals, based on field studies, and an analysis of the relationship between humans and animals as embodied in song, dance, drawings, and stories.
The San recognize at least three categories of animals. The San regard animals primarily as food, 'kx'ooxo.' Aside from becoming game, the animals are of interest to the San if they harm humans. Thus, the harmful animals comprise the second category in the San animal classification, 'paaxo.' Third, if an animal is both inedible and harmless, it is of no interest to the San. The third category is then the useless, 'goõwahaxozi.'
However, the San seem to have a distinctly different recognition of nature from ours that is markedly more differentiating and flexible. The San animal categorization may be said to have a multilevel structure: an animal that is deemed 'kx'ooxo' according to the first level categorization, can become 'paaxo,' even 'goõwahaxo.' In turn, a 'paaxo' can become 'kx'ooxo' or 'goõwahaxo.'
Many kinds of animals appear as motifs in the song, dance, rock paintings, and folk tales of the San. The hunter-gatherer familiarity with the animals is well reflected in their art as well as in their everyday life.
Key Words: San; Kalahari Desert; Hunting; Animal classification; Art; Folk tale.
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Ethnoentomology of the Central Kalahari San
Department of geography, Mie University
The Central Kalahari San use many kinds of insects for daily food and materials and as children's play things. This study describes how several insect species are used, which often follows a series of processes from collecting to consumption and the quite diversified insect utilization based on various skills and knowledge in ethnoentomology. Even though insects are not an important subsistence resource, the San have an extensive knowledge and make good use of insects. The insects even spice up the San daily life.
Key Words: insects; ethnoentomology; diversified utilization; food; material; children's play.
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Gathering Activity among the Central Kalahari San
Nagoya Gakuin University
The Central Kalahari San have been significantly changing their traditional subsistence and way of life under the influence of the sedentarization program of the Botswana government. However, they still continue gathering activities. Firewood and Building materials are needed more than before. The purpose of this study is to analytically describe the features of present San gathering activities.
San gathering activities have changed remarkably in quantity but not in quality. The frequency, time length and harvest amount have lessened but their favorite plant species, methods and group formation in gathering have not changed. Gathering is more frequently done in groups than individually for greater efficiency. The size of a group depends on the seasonal and spatial change in plant distribution, and the distance to the collecting site. The author emphasizes the significance of social interaction such as cooperation and information exchange in group gathering.
Key Words: Gathering, Sedentarization, Group gathering, Efficiency, Social interaction.
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Road Construction and Handicraft Production in the Xade Area, Botswana
National Museum of Ethnology
This paper aims to clarify the involvement of people living in the Xade area in roadwork and in the handicraft production. The total amount of wages and craft sales paid in the area approximately 3600 pula, 1200 pula per month, respectively. The laborers are employed without difference in pay exists between the sexes and ethnic groups. The San prefer to manufacture hunting tool kits, and the Kgalagadi purchase skins, from the San to make bags with fasteners. Despite the opportunity for high cash earning from them, there are very few people who continue in either of these jobs. For San people who prefer not to commit themselves to a lifestyle involving long-term methodical work, this is a reflection of the San's preference for a flexible subsistence lifestyle.
Key Words: Road construction; Handicraft production; San; Kgalagadi; Wage labor.
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Dry Farming among the San in the Central Kalahari
National Museum of Ethnology
In this paper, dry farming among the San is analyzed with the emphasis on farming techniques, methods of land use, agricultural management and the distribution of agricultural products. In 1993, fields were made at 40 locations in Xade extending 20 km from the central settlement. The size of the fields ranged from less than 10 ares to more than 100 ares. The land use includes conbined of cultivation of watermelon, cowpea and maize. There are 10 varieties of cultivated watermelon grown for the fruit, and 3 varieties for the seeds. Due to the distribution system for watermelons among the San, it is impossible for farmers to become rich from a good harvest.
Key Words: San; Dry farming; Watermelon; Land use; Distribution system.
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An Outline of |Gui Phonology
Tokyo University of Foreign Studies
Phonological contrasts of segments and tones are briefly described. In the course of the description, the characteristics of the click and non-click consonants of |Gui are discussed, and more general problems relevant to Khoisan phonological typology and historical investigations of the Central Khoisan Family are addressed with some new findings of |Gui. A tentative orthography is proposed for the linguistically adequate recording of |Gui material.
Key Words: Khoisan; Khoe; click; palatalization; orthography.
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An Ethnosemantic Analysis of |Gui Relationship Terminology
This paper reconsiders |Gui relationship terminology by means of a lexical semantic and ethnosemantic approach based on data the author gathered through field research and illustrate how |Gui people classify their contemporaries. Upon review of the literature, new terms are introduced and classified into reference terms and address terms. Next, reference terms are grouped into a sextet of category terms and the range of meanings in each category is clarified. The |Gui terms are distinctive with respect to generation and restrictions on sexual behavior, and the model of |Gui's classification of people is given.
Key Words: Khoisan; Khue; |Gui; Relationship Terminology; Extra-Marital Sexual Relationship.
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Some Methodological Issues for the Analysis of Everyday Conversations among the |Gui
Several samples of |Gui conversations were analyzed to examine basic methodological issues. The analysis on the logic of irony and implication reveals that a principle-centered understanding of the conversation such as Grician theory is not sufficient. The organization of interaction in social context is especially important. The formalization of conversational interaction is defined as a systematic differentiation into complimentary roles of speaker and hearer and their alternation in relatively a long cycle, which realizes a particular patterning of the turn-taking. In contrast, frank argument is well-characterized by an immediate-reflexive responsiveness. By applying these concepts to actual social relationships, the model of joking-avoidance relationship is reconsidered.
Key Words: Conversation analysis; Cooperative principle; Turn-taking; Joking; Affines.
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