Top > African Study Monographs > ASM Back Number > Vol. 36 (2015) No. 1
Vol. 36 (2015) No. 1
pp. 1–3

INTRODUCTION TO THE SPECIAL TOPIC: INDIGENOUS IDENTITIES AND ETHNIC COEXISTENCE IN AFRICA

Junko MARUYAMA
Department of International and Cultural Studies, Tsuda College

Michaela PELICAN
Department of Cultural and Social Anthropology, University of Cologne

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pp. 5–26

Tilman Lenssen-Erz
African Archaeology, Institute for Prehistoric Archaeology, University of Cologne

COOPERATION OR CONFLICT? IDENTITY AND SCARCE RESOURCES OF PREHISTORIC SAHARAN PASTORALISTS

ABSTRACT

Nomadic or transhumant pastoralists in the Ennedi Highlands in north eastern Chad have always had to cope with scarce resources. When the region was first made use of by pastoralists circa 3000 BC, aridification had already started. Despite progressing aridification, the landscape was used for herding cattle and goats, and later also for keeping horses and camels in the following millennia. Hundreds of rock art sites are witness to this appropriation. While demographic data are still missing, it appears that comparatively intense dwelling activities inevitably put pressure on the scarce resources. In the art motifs from the last five millennia a fine-grained regionalization is expressed, indicating that in rather small neighbouring spatial units different identities were manifested, notwithstanding the common economic base. Different rock art traditions articulate different appropriation of the landscape by mapping markers of identity onto the land. Rock art depicts an ambiguous portrait of the social relations among the groups within the area since there are indications of cooperation on the one hand, whereas on the other hand many pictures of mounted warriors and numerous “sentinel” figures point at the potential for conflict – yet without ever depicting it.

Key Words:Prehistory, Identity, Rock art motifs, Saharan pastoralists, Scarce resources.

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pp. 27–48

Haruna YATSUKA
College of International Relations, Nihon University

RECONSIDERING THE “INDIGENOUS PEOPLES” IN THE AFRICAN CONTEXT FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF CURRENT LIVELIHOOD AND ITS HISTORICAL CHANGES: THE CASE OF THE SANDAWE AND THE HADZA IN TANZANIA

ABSTRACT

The Sandawe and the Hadza are regarded both hunter-gatherer groups in Tanzania, once categorized as among the vulnerable minority groups subjected to flagrant violations against communal and individual rights in East Africa. Today, the Hadza are recognized as “indigenous peoples” internationally, while the Sandawe are not. To understand the reasons for the different situations, the author compared their current livelihoods and historical changes. Through the comparison, current livelihood patterns and relationships with and support from outsiders were in total contrast between the Hadza and the Sandawe. This article focuses on three points: 1) The Sandawe who mainly engage in agriculture today are not deemed different from the mainstream of the Tanzanian society. 2) The Sandawe’s agricultural livelihood leave them free of land violation than would be otherwise if they engaged in hunting and gathering mainly. 3) The agricultural lifestyle of the Sandawe is unbecoming to image of the indigenous peoples.

Key Words: Hunter-gatherers; Livelihood; Indigenous peoples; Land rights; Tourism.

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pp. 49–74

Michaela PELICAN
Department of Cultural and Social Anthropology, University of Cologne

Junko MARUYAMA
Department of International and Cultural Studies, Tsuda College

THE INDIGENOUS RIGHTS MOVEMENT IN AFRICA: PERSPECTIVES FROM BOTSWANA AND CAMEROON

ABSTRACT

This article outlines the different trajectories of the indigenous rights movement in Africa, and discusses the factors that have contributed to its success or decline. Two case studies are compared; namely, the case of the San people of Botswana in Southern Africa, and the case of the Mbororo people of Cameroon in West Africa. On a general level, this article argues that the indigenous rights movement in different parts of Africa has gone through various phases, from expectation and success to disillusionment and pragmatism. Moreover, it demonstrates that the San and Mbororo communities and other groups not only rely on the global indigenous rights movement, but have also adopted alternative and complementary strategies to deal with the unforeseen consequences of this movement. Finally, we argue that our case studies attest to the enduring relevance of the nation-state and the ideal of ethnic coexistence in Africa.

Key Words: Indigeneity, Coping strategies, United Nations, Government policy, Central Kalahari, Northwest Cameroon.

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